1. Growing: The single sapphire crystal with large size and high quality is grown in the crystal growth furnace.
2. Orientation: Ensure the sapphire crystal in the correct position on the cutting machine, so as to facilitate the cut processing;
3. Take out the rod: Take out the sapphire rod from the sapphire crystal in a specific way (including head and tail removal and end face grinding);
4. Rolling grinding: The cylindrical grinding of the crystal rod is carried out with an external grinder to obtain the accurate cylindrical dimension accuracy (rolling, grinding of the surface);
5. Quality inspection: To ensure that the quality of the sapphire rod and the size and orientation of the inserted sapphire rod meet the customer's specifications;
6. Orientation: Accurately locate the position of sapphire crystal rod on the slicing machine, so as to facilitate the precise slicing process;
7. Slicing: Use diamond wire saw to cut the sapphire crystal rod into thin wafers;
8. Grinding: Remove the chip cutting damage layer caused by slicing and improve the flatness of the wafer;
9. Chamfer: Trim the edge of the wafer into a circular arc to improve the mechanical strength of the edge of the wafer and avoid defects caused by stress concentration, with a 45-degree chamfer of 0-0.2 mm;
10. Polishing: Improve the surface roughness of the wafer to reach the epitaxial wafer-level precision (first double-sided polishing, then single-sided polishing). The front surface roughness is less than 0.3μm, and the back surface roughness is 0.4-1.0 μm;
11. Cleaning: Remove the pollutants on the wafer surface, such as dust particles, metal, organic dirt, etc.;
12. Quality inspection: The wafer (flatness, surface dust particles, etc.) should be inspected with a high-precision detector to meet the requirements of customers.
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