Sapphire wafer manufacturing process:
1. Orientation: Accurately locate the sapphire crystal rod position on the slicing machine, so as to facilitate precise slicing processing
2. Slicing: Cut the sapphire crystal rod into thin wafers
3. Grinding: Remove the chip cutting damage layer caused by slicing and improve the flatness of the wafer
4. Chamfering: Trim the wafer edge into a circular arc to improve the mechanical strength of the wafer edge to avoid the defects caused by stress concentration
5. Polishing: Improve the roughness of the wafer to reach the epitaxial wafer's precision
6. Cleaning: Remove the contaminants on the wafer surface (such as dust particles, metals, organic contaminants)
7. Quality inspection: The wafer's quality (flatness, surface dust particles, etc.) shall be inspected with high-precision testing instruments to meet customer requirements
In practical production, the sapphire wafer is made by cutting the crystal bar and then grinding and polishing. Generally, the semiconductor wafer is cut into a wafer by wire cutting or multi-wire cutting machine. Because the cutting conditions always fluctuate during the cutting process, there are deviations in thickness and flatness of the cut sapphire. If the cutting conditions change, it will cause a deep damage layer. Due to the small amount of material surface removal during wafer polishing, grinding is needed to improve the flatness, curvature and parallelism deviation of the wafer before polishing and to reduce the thickness of the damage layer caused by cutting.
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